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Study Notes for Colonies
Due Date: 8/30/2015

Points to study for Colony Quiz

1. Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

2. William Bradford, 
 governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.

3. The Pilgrims were separatists who believed that the Church of England could not be reformed. Separatist groups were illegal in England, so the Pilgrims fled to America and settled in Plymouth. The Puritans were non-separatists who wished to adopt reforms to purify the Church of England. They received a right to settle in the Massachusetts Bay area from the King of England.

4. Massachusetts Bay Colony
1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government.

5. Cambridge Agreement
1629 - The Puritan stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company agreed to emigrate to New England on the condition that they would have control of the government of the colony.

Many Puritans emigrated from England to America in the 1630s and 1640s. During this time, the population of the Massachusetts Bay colony grew to ten times its earlier population.

7. John Winthrop (1588-1649), his beliefs
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony and a Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders.

8. Anne Hutchinson-She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.

9. Roger Williams, Rhode Island
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.

10. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
 Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.

11. Massachusetts School Law: 
First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 or more families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 families had to found a grammar school.

12. Harvard founded
1636 -Followed Puritan beliefs.

13. King Philip’s War
1675 - A series of battles in New Hampshire between the colonists and the Wompanowogs, led by a chief known as King Philip. The colonists won with the help of the Mohawks, and this victory opened up additional Indian lands for expansion.

14. Joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts.

15. Virginia was formed by the Virginia Company as a profit-earning venture. Starvation was the major problem; about 90% of the colonists died the first year, many of the survivors left, and the company had trouble attracting new colonists.. Virginia did not become a successful colony until the colonists started raising and exporting tobacco.

16. Headright system
: Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

17. John Smith
: Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter.

18. John Rolfe: tobacco
, he was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.

19. Slavery begins
1619 - The first African slaves in America arrive in the Virginia colony.

20. House of Burgesses
1619 - The Virginia House of Burgesses formed, the first legislative body in colonial America. Later other colonies would adopt houses of burgesses.

21. Bacon’s Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease Indians. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.

22. Georgia was formed as a buffer between the Carolinas and Spanish-held Florida. It was a military-style colony, but also served as a haven for the poor, criminals, and persecuted Protestants.

23. James Oglethorpe: 
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military- 42. Charlston
1690 - The first permanent settlement in the Carolinas, named in honor of King Charles. Much of the population were Huguenot (French Protestant) refugees.

24. Staple crops in the South
: Tobacco was grown in Virginia, Maryland, and North Carolina. Rice was grown in South Carolina and Georgia. Indigo was grown in South Carolina.

25. Pennsylvania, William Penn
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.

26. Frame of government
1701 - The Charter of Liberties set up the government for the Pennsylvania colony. It established representative government and allowed counties to form their own colonies.

27. New York: Dutch, 1664, English
, New York belonged to the Dutch, but King Charles II gave the land to his brother, the Duke of York in 1664. When the British came to take the colony, the Dutch, who hated their Governor Stuyvesant, quickly surrendered to them. The Dutch retook the colony in 1673, but the British regained it in 1674.

28. Peter Stuyvesant
 was the governor of the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam.

29.  Great Awakening of the 1830s led to development of new churches, more religious freedoms, and greater toleration in the colonies.

30.  The Middle Passage was the long leg of the journey for slaves coming from West Africa to the Caribbean.

31.  The Triangular Trade Routes brought slaves to America.

32.  Many early government documents impacted self-government in the colonies.  These are also available to read on my Links section.